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Valium (diazepam) is a widely used tranquilizer drug that has a pronounced sedative, hypnotic, anticonvulsant, and calming effect. It is used to treat nervousness, anxiety, insomnia, skeletal muscle spasms.
Diazepam acts on specific benzodiazepine receptors, which are located in postsynaptic GABA-receptor complexes in the thalamus, limbic system, hypothalamus, insertion neurons of the lateral horns of the spinal cord, activating the ascending reticular formation of the brain stem. The drug increases the sensitivity of GABA receptors and GABA, this determines the increase in the frequency of opening channels in the cytoplasmic membrane of neurons for incoming chlorine ions. All this leads to an increase in the inhibitory effect of GABA and inhibition of interneuron transmission in the central nervous system. Anti-anxiety effects are manifested by the ability to remove fear, inner anxiety, tension, anxiety. It has an amnesic and antipanic effect. In the treatment of sleep disorders, the use of diazepam as a hypnotic agent is advisable when it is necessary to obtain anxiolytic effects throughout the day. The central effect of the muscle relaxant is caused by inhibition of spinal polysynaptic reflexes. Diazepam has a pronounced anticonvulsant effect, which is used in epilepsy for the therapy of mental equivalents, convulsive paroxysms, for the removal of epileptic status. Diazepam is effective in adults under parenteral administration in acute conditions, which are accompanied by seizures, psychomotor agitation, and other symptoms.
According to the instructions, Valium is taken with abstinent alcohol syndrome if the patient is disturbed by tremor, tension, anxiety, strong excitement. Valium can be included in the complex therapy of hypertension, gastrointestinal ulcers, disorders occurring in gynecology and obstetrics (psychosomatic, menstrual and climacteric), epilepsy, heart attack, eczema and other skin diseases accompanied by irritation and itching. Due to the help of Valium, premedication is performed before operations and diagnostic endoscopic manipulations, before general anesthesia. There are reviews of Valium used in obstetrics: the drug is used to facilitate labor, premature birth (only at the end of the 3rd trimester), with a premature detachment of the placenta.
Diazepam is used intravenously, orally, rectally, intramuscularly. Regime and doses are strictly individual. You should start the therapy with the lowest effective dose, which corresponds to a particular disease. You should cancel treatment gradually, under the supervision of a doctor.
If you miss the next intake of diazepam, you should immediately contact your doctor.
Hypersensitivity, severe liver failure, acute kidney and liver disease, severe myasthenia gravis, alcohol or drug dependence (except therapy of acute withdrawal syndrome), suicidal tendencies, severe respiratory failure, spinal and cerebral ataxia, severe hypercapnia, angle-closure glaucoma, acute attack of glaucoma, pregnancy (1 trimester), age up to 30 days, breast-feeding.
The drug reduces the activity of diazepam psychostimulants, analeptics. Antacids can reduce the rate of absorption of diazepam, but not its degree. Isoniazid inhibits the excretion of diazepam. Inhibitors of microsomal oxidation (including cimetidine, fluvoxamine, ketoconazole, omeprazole, fluoxetine) change the pharmacokinetics and increase the duration of the effects of diazepam. Rifampicin reduces diazepam levels in the blood. Erythromycin inhibits the metabolism of diazepam in the liver. Diazepam can change plasma concentrations of phenytoin.
It should be remembered that the tension or anxiety that are associated with everyday stress, usually do not require therapy with anxiolytics.